Regardless of the energy sources: wind, geothermal, solar, biomass, the renewable energy industry is a fast-growing industry that is at the heart of global energy policies. To preserve the environment, each technological innovation requires efficient management of energy sources, using reliable gas analysis, and pressure measurement solutions.
During the times when there is low electrical demand, excess electricity is used to pump water from the lower reservoir into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine, thus generating electricity. The energy of falling water is used to rotate turbine and power generator, thus generating electricity. Pumped-storage hydroelectric power is the largest-capacity renewable energy in the world. It can provide stable power supply if the volume of water in reservoirs is controlled.
Flash steam power plants pump up geothermal water from geothermal reservoir through production well, and then separate steam from water. The steam is then used to operate turbine which generate electricity. The hot water is returned under the ground through re-injection well. This system is used when the temperature of geothermal water is high. The steam passed through a turbine is converted to hot water by condenser, and then cooled to be used in condenser.
Binary cycle power plants can generate electricity with low-temperature geothermal water because it uses a secondary fluid of which boiling point is lower than water. Normal-pentane, fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon, or others are used as the secondary fluid. Fuji Electric proposes combining the flash steam system and the binary cycle system to enhance the thermal efficiency. A customer can add a binary cycle facility later on.
Wind power is a clean source of energy, causing less environmental impact including CO2 emission. However, it has significant variation in power generation, depending on meteorological conditions. It is most popular among renewable energies although it has disadvantages such as: significant variation in power generation dependingon meteorological conditions; broad area requiredfor reliable powersupply; concerns about low-frequency sound and wind noise. From the reasons above and others, large wind farms are often constructed offshore.
Solar power is another clean source of energy. The use of solar power is increasing worldwide, especially in the form of domesticator commercial rooftop photovoltaic panels. In some remote areas such as deserts, large-scale photovoltaic power plants are in operation.
When sunlight hit on a photovoltaic panel which is made of P-type silicone and N-type silicone, a pair of electric charge, positive and negative, is generated. Positive electric charges gather in P-type silicone while negative charge in N-type silicone, thereby generating electricity.
Biomass is a source of renewable energy, derives from organic matter such as forest residues, sewage sludge, livestock waste, food residue. Biomass can be used as fuel in various forms, for example, solid fuel, biogas, or bioethanol. Through combustion of these fuels, we can obtain green energy.
Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is also referred to as "solid recovered fuel", a fuel produced from waste from households or offices.
These wastes are dried, processed, and mixed with lime to be used as RDF in power plants.
Refuse Derived Fuel has advantages such as: easy to transport, suited to long-term storage, stable quality, generates more heat compared to general waste.