In offshore exploration, a platform is built to drill wells and extract oil.
In deep wells or in the event that the reservoir pressure is not sufficient to raise the oil to the surface,
the oil is lifted by injecting high water pressure.
Shale oil and oil shale gas are extracted from oil shale, either thermally or chemically, or by hydrogenation.
An estimate in 2013 shows that the world's total oil shale resources are worth 6.7 trillion barrels, four times more than conventional oil.
The largest deposit of resources in the United States.
As the crude oil in the tar sands is extremely viscous and cannot be extracted by a conventional process,
high temperature steam is injected to lower the viscosity of the oil in order to recover the oil.
Conventional natural gas has been extracted from underground reservoirs, sometimes as a by-product of petroleum.
In many cases, it usually blows under natural pressure, but salt water which includes natural gas must be pumped if the gas is water soluble.
The most typical method of lifting salt water is gas lift, which introduces compressed natural gas so that the salt water is lifted by the thrust of the gas.
A gas well is created by drilling a borehole 3,000 to 5,000 meters deep, placing casing in it, and making holes on the casing in the gas zone so that gas can pass through the holes in the well. drilling. Then a steel pipe called a production tube is inserted into the casing to carry the oil or gas to the surface. In most cases, oil and natural gas include contaminants such as strata water and carbon dioxide. To remove them, oil and gas are sent through a valve assembly called a "Christmas tree" to a separator.
Shale gas is natural gas present in shale formations. Due to its low permeability, it cannot be recovered by conventional drilling methods.
In recent years, the natural gas industry has adopted horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the extraction of shale gas.
Shale gas has become an important source of natural gas, particularly in the United States and Canada.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)